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Fundamentals of Web Application Architecture

Chandrapal Singh By Chandrapal Singh | July 14, 2020

Around a decade back, companies used to depend upon the websites with static pages or the one that took more than a few seconds to load. However, the internet world faced a paradigm shift that has made companies go for powerful and pleasing web apps.

The motive of the small, medium, and large scale industries is to increase user engagement that can be achieved with the help of modern organizational approach. Thanks to the giants like Microsoft, Google, and Amazon, the user expectations have also increased over time.

In such cases, it is becoming essential to work on web application architecture to come up with an ideal solution for users. It can be done in advanced and strategic ways to offer strong web application architecture.

The fact is that websites are a bit easy to manage but when it comes to web apps then it can be a bit complex if not managed properly. The technical expertise and custom-made application using the WYSIWYG editor can be managed easily.

But apart from this, it is vital to be aware of what web app architecture is, its trends, its models, and so on. So, let us walk you through the major aspects of web application architecture that can help you a lot.

What is Web Application Architecture?

Software is not completely with the web application and its components that make it a vital aspect for the developing world. It includes an in-app store, login-screen, user interface,  databases, and so on.

In order to manage these components, it is essential to work on all the major aspects of web app development. The developers need to manage the relationship between web apps and components while showcasing how interaction can be developed and maintained.

To give you a better understanding of it, here is a small working of web application architecture that can explain it all.

web application architecture

Just like any other mobile application, web apps also have two sides – backend and frontend that work in a similar manner.

The frontend of web apps works on the client-side in which the user will interact. The user can see the browser and use it that can be used to collect data. The client-side is written on JavaScript, CSS, and HTML. However, you can get a better understanding of it with Frontend JavaScript Frameworks guide.

Whereas, the backend is on the server-end that is not accessed by the users. The server is used to store data that can be manipulated easily when required. It can be done easily with HTTP requests of backend processes that can use the data in the form of files, images, and text collected from users. It can be done easily with platforms like JavaScript, Python, Java, PHP, etc. Learn more about it with an essential mobile app backend development guide.

It is essential to focus on the architect since it defines the whole web development architecture. If the architecture is placed in the wrong manner then you will end up with bugs, slower response time, and poor user experience. Whereas when done in the right way, it can increase user experience and enhance response time.

The web interaction can be taken up easily with the advancement of the internet era especially since Fortune 500 companies are embracing it. As a matter of fact, web apps are around us for a longer period of time, but it is now that they are coming out in open and companies are embracing them with open arms.

Even the major attributes of the architecture are as follows:

  • Supports visual aesthetic
  • Solves business problems
  • Ensures fast user experience
  • Enables analytics and A/B testing
  • Guarantees a higher automation level
  • Self-regulating and sustainable
  • Logs and scales out error easily
  • Offers security

With this, do you know how modern web application architecture works like? Let us give you an insight.

The user request is generated in the browser on a URL that helps in getting the site location. This request is then sent to the server and data is fetched from it. Once data is collected, the server sends it to the browser where it is translated for users to understand.

This simple process can be attained with different components and models that will be explained below. 

Read More – Cloud apps vs web apps

Web Application Architecture Components

There are different types of web components that are included in the web app architecture. These are majorly divided into two web application architecture components as explained below.

#1 Structural Components

In the web application, structural components are the one that includes the functionalities that determine the interaction of users. Along with this, the database storage and control are also listed in it. In this the architecture is mainly for the three parts:

  • The Web Application Server that works as the central hub for the multi-layer and business logic of the application. It is developed with the help of PHP, Python, Node.JS, Ruby, .NET, and Java.

  • The Client or Web Browser is the one in which the users can interact with the web apps using the functions. It is developed with JavaScript, CSS, and HTML.

  • The Database Server is for the one that includes relevant information and business logic that is managed by the server. It provides, retrieves, and stores information to the users.

#2 User Interface App Components

It is the components that work differently when it comes to web application architecture. This aspect is related to the settings, display, and configurations in the app. In this component, user experience or interface is the vital part instead of what it will work after web development architecture. It includes the display of dashboards, the notifications, configuration settings, and logs. 

Models of Web Application Architecture

tech stack of web app architecture

The model depends upon the web application architecture and databases. Hence, to understand the models of modern web application architecture, it is essential to know the three types. So, let us walk you through the major web application architecture models that are used to build the components. 

#1 One Database, One Web Server

The most basic and simple model in the web application architecture is one webserver and one database. In this model, as the name suggests, the developers use only one database and web server to build the app.

It is one of the most used models of mobile application architecture in the past. However, it has its own issue, if the server is down, then the model will be down as well. For the web apps, now this model is not ideally used due to its limitation of one server.

Usually, the mobile app testers use this type of model to test their projects with the internet of understanding and learning the web application fundamentals that help in developing next-gen enterprise mobility solutions technology.

#2 One Database, Multiple Web Servers

The web application component model is mainly at the machine than at the server. It is best to go for such an application where the data is not stored at the webserver. The processing of data is done by the web server and is then saved over the database.

This is a stateless architecture form in which there is a minimum of 2 web servers in the model. It is to avoid any type of failure that might arise. The best thing in case of any issue with one server, another one can take its place and will receive the new requests for execution.

Hence, reliability is the biggest factor in this form since it includes a better inherent database model instead of a single server. 

#3 Multiple Databases, Multiple Web Servers

Another aspect of the web application component is the most efficient one that includes no point of failure for neither database nor web server. This model includes two types of database models that store identical data and are evenly distributed.

Generally, the two models are enough and there is no need to add on the new database to it since data is available in both in case of failure. In both cases, DBMS normalization is used. However, for a large scale work, more than 5 databases or web servers can be used with load balancers. 

Types of Web Application Architecture

There are mainly three types of web application architecture that are used by the development and design team. Not only this, but it also helps in determining the progressive web apps future since it helps in showcasing what the app will look like.

#1 Single Page Application Architecture

As the name suggests, it is the web app that contains only a single page application architecture that only contains the content elements. This type of web app offers the best user experience with much dynamic interaction. The users can easily access a single page in a better and interactive manner. 

#2 Micro Services

The architecture framework that focuses upon the specific functionalities and single page execution for efficiency and faster rollout. It is built easily with codes that can be flexible and offer topmost quality to the app. The microservices are the small tasks or modules that are developed and later on compiled for faster execution. 

#3 Serverless Architecture

The web application without any infrastructure or correlation related tasks. It is the one in which the developers can work the third-party infrastructure instead of backend server management. Hence, making it easy for the developers to execute the web app. 

Types of Web Server Architecture (Tech-Wise)

The web server is a basic necessity for mobile app developers that facilitates web development architecture, design, and deployment. The motive of a web server is to work on the request of clients using secure portals for mobile apps or browsers.

It can be related to REST API or even the page resource that helps in web app functions. The fact is that web apps help in giving an understanding of web server working that increases the emphasis on the proper architecture.

In addition to this, the memory, storage, performance, computing power, and other servers’ physical capacity are vital. To give you a better understanding of how the web server works, here are the type of its architecture. 

types of web server architecture

#1 Cloud-based Web Application Architecture

The first and foremost type of architecture is for the migration to cloud technology. It is to offer leverage to the company parameters while working on the architecture of the server. In this, the whole setup is done on the cloud that results in decoupling of data for the creation of a corollary. This type of architecture helps in storing the data on the cloud or local servers using the cloud-based app functions.

#2 Java Web Application Architecture

There is no doubt that Java is one of the most brilliant programming languages and with the debate of Java Vs Kotlin and Java Vs Python, we all know the role of the oldest Android platform. This platform is also used for enterprise web application architecture development as per the complexity of the project.

In such a case, normally, the solutions are taken as the multi=tiered applications that can be obtained via Java. The best thing about a platform like Java is that it helps in delivering the project with best expectations and building solutions that up to the mark. In addition to this, the developers can use Java frameworks and tools that make it easy to work on complex applications. 

#3 .NET Web Application Architecture

The cross-platform apps can be supported easily on the .NET platform that makes it an ideal one to deal with. This includes side-by-side versioning, microservices, and Docker containers making web development architecture easy. This platform helps in understanding the database code and store data easily with database code.

All you need to be aware of is the Data Access Layer that helps in the development and functionality enhancement as .NET Core and ASP.NET Core optimization

Read More – NodeJS Vs Golang

#4 Node.js Web Application Architecture

Another aspect of the web server architecture is Node JS that works on the model view aspect of the web application. This helps in identifying code elements with the creation of patterns. It helps in configuring the elements in the mobile web app excluding routing. In addition to this, to ensure the app can run seamlessly, the entity-relationship that helps in data systemization, processing valuable, and breaking modules logics.

#5 PHP Web Application Architecture

The web app can work easily with the help of a highly functional and least complex programming language – PHP. In addition to this, the community of the PHP is extremely large as compared to others. If the web app architecture is done then it will be possible to develop the app with proper framework, swift, and robust security. Along with this, the PWA or web apps can be easy to be maintained with proper community support. 

Read More – things you need to know about progressive web applications

#6 Laravel Web Application Architecture

The PHP web framework – Laravel – is to develop the model view controller easily. This helps in establishing the architectural pattern as per the requirements of the web apps to develop the syntax that is elegant, creative, and expressive. The web development process works in a better session, routing, caching, and authentication process.

#7 AngularJS Web Application Architecture

The TypeScript and HTML are used to develop the architecture using essential frameworks. Other than this, Angular development can be done easily with the reduction of code size and lazy loading. 

#8 Python Web Application Architecture

One of the major digital transformation technologies that are used for development is Python that is a maintainable, readable, and concise programming language. It is the reason why developers prefer it as the scripting language for the server-side. This is to speed up the whole maintenance cycle of web apps. 

#9 Azure Web Application Architecture

It is the tool that serves as the bridge between the cloud and traditional tools. Keeping this in mind, it is designed in a well-structured form that can adapt to the web application architecture best practices of Azure Web App Architecture. 

Trends in Web Application Architecture

When we talk about trends, there are mainly two trends in the web app architecture that are counted as a priority. This includes client-side and server-side rendering. Let us give you an insight into it to give a glimpse into the web app architecture world. 

FeaturesClient-Side RenderingServer-Side Rendering
DefinitionIt is the client process in
which the request is
made via an HTTPs server
that works as the main skeleton. 
The server-side is the aspect
that connects the URL to the
user to process requests
helping in transferring files
to the browsers.
The client can make
requests easily and the
server will render them. 
ProsWebsite runs faster after
initial load
Rich site interactions
Ideal for web apps
Faster initial load
Better SEO to help
website crawl
Ideal for static sites instead
of dynamic.
ConsIf not implemented correctly then
low SEO
Requires an external library
Slow initial load
Slow page rendering
Frequent server request
Basic site interactions
Full page reloads

Features of Web Application Architecture

With this, let us know why the mobile app development company goes for web app architecture. The fact is that it has hidden features that not everyone is aware of. Here is everything that you must know off.

  1. Scalability – The horizontal scaling of web apps is another factor that is counted in the architecture. It includes several servers and regions in order to manage the potential traffic or any sort of fluctuations. As a result, cloud services are becoming a major focus in terms of bandwidth proportion.
  2. Security – The vulnerability of a web app is not a hidden fact and hence it makes security even more important. Not only this, malicious code manipulation is the biggest concern in terms of security. It is vital to protect the app to keep the data secure as per the Government laws.
  3. Separation of Concerns – As we all know that an app must be self-contained and modular in nature for components. This makes it easy for developers to fix issues or add features in the web app. In addition to this, the simplicity of the web app makes it an essential part of the architecture that can solve problems, be responsive, fast, and unique. Then there is A/B testing, automated deployment, and analytics support. 
  4. Extensible – The life of the web app architecture is another factor that is essential for mobile app developers. It is essential to have a long and stable lifecycle of modern web application architecture. This makes it easy for modernization and updates that don’t interrupt any functionalities. 

How to Design Web Application Architecture

There are a number of key aspects that the developers need to keep in mind while designing the web app architecture. So, before you choose the right technology stack for your mobile app it is vital to know these aspects. 

  • Target audience
  • Goal of architecture
  • Budget
  • Web solution features and scale
  • Targeted platforms
  • Timeframe for development

These aforementioned aspects are a vital part of the architecture built that gives an insight into what it should be like. So, let’s get started.

#1 Backend

When it comes to the backend it is vital to go for the platform that is relevant in terms of dynamic and static nature for the domain. It is best to select the language and server that can go well with each other.

There is the option of microservices or serverless web app architect that can be attained using cloud services for memory and CPU requirements. In addition to this, the web solutions also operate over microservices that makes communication easy via HTTP or Queue supporting multiple languages. 

#2 Database

In the database selected for the architecture, it is essential to go for the one that can offer different features such as SQL and NoSQL. Both the platforms are different from each other since SQL is mainly about a predefined plan and tables whereas NoSQL is about key-value structure, objects, and so on.

When it comes to large scale projects, then NoSQL is usually considered due to its higher scalability and flexibility factor. Apart from this, a Replicable database is also considered for better load management. In this, the cluster collects the replicated data easily. However, it is best to make sure to have a backup in case the database fails. 

#3 API

Another essential factor for the design is API that depends upon POST, REST, and GET. These APIs can easily manage the HTTP request. Apart from this, there is GraphQLthat is included by Facebook that allows us to fetch objects from the server and make lean calls. If the internet bandwidth of a mobile app is limited then this can come handy.

In addition to this, the computer communications protocol is also included in the form of WebSocket that transfers messages from the server to the client. However, it is an optional part since not all apps keep the client updated on new data.

#4 Frontend

Another factor about the web app architecture is to choose between the Single page application or model view controller. While selecting the type of architecture, it is essential to consider the requirements and what will be the best in both cases.

To come up with this, make platforms are used including web components, React, Vue, Angular, etc. that can suit the frontend development of web apps. 

The Bigger Picture

With the internet era as our main focus, the world is changing and so is the development. This is essential to develop secure, responsive, robust, and scalable web apps. For any web solutions, the web application architecture is taking over and has become a backbone.

Just make sure to keep the essential parameters in while developing the web app and including vital factors to it. So, if you are planning to develop the web app and need any guidance with its architecture then feel free to contact us

Chandrapal Singh
Chandrapal Singh

A technocrat and an entrepreneur who is the Co-Founder and Chief Delivery Head at Appventurez. Skilled in object-oriented programming (OOP), iOS Development, Design Principles, Data Structures, and Swift, he has served different organizations as Tech Lead.

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